Lesson 5.1: Basic Grammar Structures

Objective: Students will grasp the foundational grammar structures of the Spanish language, including subject pronouns, the present tense of regular verbs, and the gender and number agreement of nouns and adjectives. This fundamental knowledge will enable them to construct simple sentences and understand basic Spanish syntax.


Embarking on the adventure of learning Spanish involves more than just memorizing vocabulary; it’s about understanding the framework that holds the language together. Today, we’re going to unravel the mysteries of basic Spanish grammar, from the building blocks of constructing sentences to the nuances of gender and number. These grammar foundations are your toolkit for crafting your thoughts into Spanish words and sentences, allowing you to communicate your ideas clearly and effectively. Let’s dive into the structure of the Spanish language and set you up for success in your language learning journey. ¡Vamos a empezar!

Learning Content

  1. Subject Pronouns
  • Yo (I)
  • (You, informal)
  • Él / Ella / Usted (He / She / You, formal)
  • Nosotros / Nosotras (We, masculine/feminine)
  • Vosotros / Vosotras (You all, informal, used mainly in Spain, masculine/feminine)
  • Ellos / Ellas / Ustedes (They, masculine/feminine / You all, formal or informal in Latin America)
  1. Present Tense of Regular Verbs
  • Ending in -ar (e.g., hablar – to speak)
  • Ending in -er (e.g., comer – to eat)
  • Ending in -ir (e.g., vivir – to live)
  • Formation and conjugation patterns for each type of ending.
  1. Gender and Number of Nouns and Adjectives
  • Understanding masculine and feminine nouns.
  • Matching adjectives to nouns in gender and number.
  • Rules for making nouns and adjectives plural.


  1. Conjugation Practice
  • Students conjugate a selection of regular verbs in the present tense, practicing with sentences that involve different subject pronouns to reinforce understanding of verb forms.
  1. Gender and Number Agreement
  • Given a list of nouns and adjectives, students work in pairs to create sentences, ensuring correct gender and number agreement between nouns and adjectives.

Discussion Questions

  • How does the concept of gender in nouns and adjectives affect the way you construct sentences in Spanish compared to English?
  • Discuss the importance of verb conjugation in expressing time (present, past, future) in Spanish. How does this compare to your native language?

Expanding Learning

  • Research and present on the regional differences in the use of pronouns (e.g., vos vs. ) in various Spanish-speaking countries.
  • Explore the concept of “false friends” – words that look similar in Spanish and English but have different meanings, emphasizing the importance of understanding grammar and context in language learning.


Today’s exploration of basic Spanish grammar has laid the groundwork for your journey into the Spanish language. Understanding subject pronouns, verb conjugations, and the rules of gender and number agreement will empower you to form your first sentences and begin expressing yourself in Spanish. Remember, mastering a new language is a step-by-step process; celebrate your progress, and stay curious and engaged. Keep practicing, and soon, the structure of Spanish will become second nature to you. ¡Hasta la próxima lección!

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